Saturday, February 8, 2020

The Duty of the Employer to the Employee is the sole focus of Health Essay

The Duty of the Employer to the Employee is the sole focus of Health and Safety Law in Ireland - Essay Example Regardless of the post or position in an organisation each and every employee is protected by the law governing provisions on safety conditions in an organization. However, many organizations breach these laws. For this reason, employees have the responsibility of ensuring they receive the proper safety precautions from their organization. Additionally, employees should demand compensation in case of an accident in their organization2. On many occasions, many employees choose to sue their organisation in case of an accident. However, there are laws that protect an organisation from unnecessary law suits. In Ireland, employees are protected by the Health and Safety Authority (HSA). The body is responsible for the provision of guidelines under which employees and employers relate to workplace safety. The organisation also provides evaluation and analysis reports on the state of workplace safety in Ireland. The body also governs the way in which workplace safety disputes are solved. Workplace safety in Ireland is the creation of HAS since it has been functioning as a workers union in the country in terms of protecting employees from hazardous working environments3. The author further argues that the establishment of the organisation was a big step towards the global campaign of ensuring employers is responsible for their employees’ safety. As a nation, Ireland has large industrial market under which millions of human resources are employed across the nation. This number is also comprised of the self employed persons. Additionally, employers are also including both public and private companies4. Under the HAS all these organizations are governed by the rules and regulation provided by the organization. The large industrial market in Ireland greatly depends on the effort by the human resources and for this reason they have to be protected from hazardous working conditions. In a workplace safety report according to the HSA there was 7658 non-fatal accident

Wednesday, January 29, 2020

The Influences of Cross Cultural Training Essay Example for Free

The Influences of Cross Cultural Training Essay The influences of cross cultural training on the organisation and staffs Cross-cultural efficiency is very fundamental in international organisations and even in domestic organizations that have suppliers, customers and partners in other countries. We need to firm understanding of it into everything we do, when working across cultures becomes our normal way of working. Therefore, cross cultural training becomes an important part of training employees because organisations want to push their performance to success. Furthermore, by cross cultural training such as leadership development for management across cultures, companies will become more competitive in the global business world. In addition, there are different programs to cover cross cultural training; each program will try to achieve a better understanding of client needs. Generally, Paige,1986 quoted in Bhawuk Brislin (2000) â€Å" defined cross-cultural orientation as training programs designed to prepare people to live and carry out specific assignments as well as those that is designed to prepare people to return to their home country after completing their assignment in another culture†. Nowadays important and big companies send their staffs to other countries to establish and manage their businesses, those staffs are usually chosen because of their skills but it sometimes these skills will be difficult to use in a new environment. So increase the possibility of success of those staffs to use their skills at the same level of their work in their country will be the priority of companies. Therefore cross cultural training is a significant importance to help to reduce the chance of failure in a new work environment. Bean (2006), gives useful information of this topic as in the Australian Context project over 60% of participants like to take more training because their knowledge improved about the culture, also 88% of participants want to be compulsory for all employees in positions of customers contact, and a survey of public sector show that in year 2000 to 2005 the cross cultural training was able to achieve its goals although the level of the training was low compared with the level of demand of increasing the training. So this study will exam the applying of the CCAC theory to cross cultural training, positives and negatives impacts of cross cultural training on both organisation and staffs. Initially, Tarique and Caligiuri (2009), stated that based on CCAC theory cross cultural training will be more effective in a country than pre departure because an employee will exercise what he has learned from training in own country in a country he will work in. Moreover, the theory takes about the sequencing of training activities, which is the activities of cross cultural training, should be over a suitable period to increase employees learning. Finally, CCAC provides guidance about the delivery of cross-cultural training when this guide is used the employees will be able to achieve a good understanding about the training. So based on the theory employees who has trained the cross cultural training will achieve a good improvement about the country culture, knowledge at work, and adjustment in the work and out the work. Secondary, the positive and negative impacts of cross cultural training on organisation and staffs. Firstly, a main goal of CCT is to improve more cosmopolitan directors who have more ability to understand cultural differences and who can apply this understanding in cross-cultural cases. This improvement requires more care to both the reactions and behaviours (Harrison, n.d.). The positive effects as Roysircar, Gard, Hubbell, and Ortega (2005) that described that in the process of self-reflection there was a good result of trainees in the improvement of multicultural organisations. The benefits of cross cultural training (1) decrease the strong of culture shock (2) help trainees to get a level of cultural proficiency faster (3) develop the effective of work (4) the general adjustment of trainees’ families will improve (5) improve the ability of employees to make relationships in work and out of work (6) develop communication, self-maintenance, and perceptual skills ( Eschbach, Parker, and Stoeberl 2001). Selmer (2006) found that big international firms could use cross cultural training to improve the level their global projects and to ensure their expatriates have skills required also they use it to ensure the success of their foreign assignment. Anderson’s (2001) showed that nearly all the expatriates in the private, public and non-government sectors said that their previous overseas experience had helped them to adjust to their new environments. Cultural awareness training use to strengthen the capacity of the team members to Adapt to conditions is unknown. It does not focus on specific geographic areas, but uses any area and clarification of adjustment challenges (Gudykunst et al, 1996). Brandl and Neyer (2009) analysed that goal of Cultural awareness training to change the members of teams behaviours toward information and alternative perspectives. Instead of seeing new information as a threat and refuse it, it teaches trainees to see new information as a chance to master unknown conditions. Brandl and Neyer (2009) also discussed that cultural awareness training improve team knowledge to know ways to deal with unknown situations. This is significantly important to manage uncertainty when working in a team in another environment . We say that CCT helps team members training in a more open approach with other members in global teams, too, it is more likely to be able to control errors that can not be avoided in the interpretation of others Messages and predict their behaviour (Gudykunst, 1998, p. 237). The CCT is so important because May rely on ready-made ​​concepts for others adversely affect the adaptation and experience is likely to lead to a climate of mistrust and exclusion team (Richards, 1996). Training in cultural awareness, When faced with team members how to Solutions for supporting and activating resourc es, they are more willing to explore unknown cases (Glanz et al, 2001). Moreover, cultural awareness training is the study of the main culture of the trainees and their impact on his / her attitude to enable the trainee to understand the differences of a cultural nature (Eschbach et al., 2001). CCT helps to increase managerial benefits in world operations such as cross-cultural discussions, increase the ability of making decisions, improve the relationship with customers, and other management prospects (Harris Moran, 1991). In hierarchical cultures, leaders are the ones who make decisions and staffs are implemented them without any rejection or modification of these decisions, while in cultures of equality, leaders and staffs work together to make decisions and do the implementation of the decision, so employees ,who do cross cultural training to understand these differences, should improve their cultural knowledge as a team early in the formation of the group to build confidence and decrease misunderstandings (Goodman, 2012). In British Petroleum Company a manager of employees mentioned that CCT assists BP Oil managers to create policies for national needs (Hagerty, 1993). CCT affects highly upon the trainees ability to make a positive relationship with the local employees, to achieve the aim of their global assignments (Ko Yang, 2011). Because the world is becoming smaller so CCT has become important for multinational companies to improve the knowledge of cultural difference and to succeed of their expatriates on global assignments, so CCT should lead to increase the performance of these companies (Caligiuri et al, 2001). CCT is important because distressed trainees are appropriate to have emotional support and encouragement to be given at this time (Grove and Tobin, 1985). Also Grove and Torbiorn (1985) proposed that cross-cultural training should try to changes in three psychological things, ‘applicability of behaviour, clarity of mental frame of reference, and level of mere adequacy’, Which leads to maintaining personal identity of the trainees while Change some of the values, behaviour, and ways of thinking patterns and behaviour to make them consistent with those prevailing in the new environment. There is a high demand for the CCT program at private and public firms to increase customer service performances, the fact that short training programs even lead to benefits and generate interest investments in CCT stronger and more focused on the work is likely to achieve greater returns for organizations measurable (Bean, 2006). Ashamalla (1998) argues that foreign language training has to be in CCT because knowing about the language of the host country is the main thing for success in living and working in that country. Rubin (1967) wrote that CCT may be an important technique to reduce of ethnic prejudice. Finally, CCT is concentrating on doing international assignment, and specific cultural issues (Shen and Darby 2006). On the other hand, the negative influences are Berrell, Wright and Hoa (1999), explained that the conflicts can be a significant problem as Australia managers, who worked in joint ventures with Vietnamese managers, wanted to control and manage the work on own way but Vietnamese managers wanted to work together with Australia managers to achieve the goals, also the view of Australia managers with the dealing with issues was open and enthusiastic which pushed Vietnamese managers to view this thing as a negative experience, but they try to solve any disagree problems while Australia mangers faced problems directly which created conflicts. Scullion and Collings (2006) wrote that the realisation of time and energy will be worthless if the cross cultural training programme fail to address key factors of effective performance in the host country. Cultural awareness training recognizes that cultural patterns are difficult tools and inconsistent (DiMaggio, 1997). Cross-cultural training may fail to make an important variation in cross-cultural adaptation and in performance on the global job results in transfer of training problem which is known as the trainee’s failure to apply the knowledge and skills gained in training to his/her work (Burke and Hutchins, 2007; Saks and Belcourt, 2006). The financial cost of trainees’ return to their countries, who fail to do the CCT successfully, is high; some studies put a cost from $50000 to $150000 which loss firms more money than the fact (Black Mendenhall, 1990). When managers, who do CCT, are unable to achieve high chances to their businesses because of they do not have enough cross-cultural skills, they prevent the firms from successfully achieve its strategic goals, also a shortage in management in cross cultural training programme may result a shortage of growth and success internationally (Harrison, n.d.). In summary, this study has sought to show CCAC theory, and its view about cross cultural training which it prefers the trainees do CCT before leaving their country to have an overview about the host country. Furthermore, it shows the positive and negative influences of CCT on both firms and staffs, for example, CCT will improve the performance of both global organisations and employees, communication skills, reducing cultural shock. Although it can create a conflict between staffs and financial cost can be more than needing but this study thinks the advantages of cross cultural training overcome the disadvantages. References: Anderson, B. (2001) Expatriate management: An Australian tri-sector comparative study. Thunderbird International Business Review 43, no. 1: 33–50. Ashamalla, M. (1998). International human resources management practice: The challenge of expatriation. Commercial Reviews, 8(2), 54-65. Bean,R. (2006) The Effectiveness of Cross-Cultural Training in the Australian Context. Research Report. Australia ,Commonwealth of Australia. Berrell, M., Wright, P., Hoa, T. (1999) The influence of culture on managerial behaviour. Journal of Management Development, Vol. 18 No. 7, 1999, pp. 578-589. Black, J. S, Mendenhall, M. (1990), cross-cultural training effectiveness: A review and a theoretical framework for future research. Academy of Management Review, 73(1), 113-136. Brandl, J., Neyer, A. (2009) APPLYING COGNITIVE ADJUSTMENT THEORY TO CROSS-CULTURAL TRAINING FOR GLOBAL VIRTUAL TEAMS. Human Resource Management, May–June 2009, Vol. 48, No. 3, Pp. 341– 353. Burke, L., and Hutchins, H. (2007), Training transfer: an integrative review. Human Resource Development Review, 6, 263–96. Caligiuri, P., Phillips, J., Lazarova, M., Tarique, I., Biirgi, P. (2001). The theory of met expectations applied to expatriate adjustment : the role of cross cultural training. Int. J. of Human Resource Management, 12 :3 May 2001 357-372. DiMaggio, P. (1997). Culture and cognition. American Review of Sociology, 23, 263–287. Eschbach, D., Parker, G., Stoeberl, P. (2001) American repatriate employees’ retrospective assessments of the effects of cross-cultural training on their adaptation to international assignments. Int. J. of Human Resource Management, 12:2 March 2001 270–287. Glanz, L., Williams, R., Hoeksema, L. (2001). Sensemaking in expatriation: A theoretical basis. Thunderbird International Business Review, 43(1), 101–119. Goodman, N. (2012). Your Brain on Culture. Learning Officer, 32-34. Grove, C.L. and Torbiorn, I. (1985) A New Conceptualization of Intercultural Adjustment and Goals of Training, International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 9: 205–33. Gudykunst, W. B., Guzley, R., Hammer, M. R. (1996). Designing intercultural training. In D. Landis R. Bhagat (Eds.), Handbook of intercultural training (2nd ed., pp. 61–80). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Gudykunst, W. B. (1998). Applying anxiety/uncertainty management (AUM) theory to intercultural adjustment training. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 22(2), 227–250. Hagerty, B. (1993). Trainers help expatriate employees build bridges to different cultures. Wall Street Journal (June 14), Bl. Harris, P. R., Moran, R. T. (1991). Managing Cultural Differences. Houston, TX: Gulf Publishing. Harrison, J. (n.d.). Developing Successful Expatriate Managers: A Framework for the Structural Design and Strategic Alignment of Cross-Cultural Training Programs. HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNING, 17(3), 17- 35. Ko, H., Yang, M. (2011). The Effects of Cross-Cultural Training on Expatriate Assignments. Intercultural Communication Studies XX: 1 (2011) Paige, R. M. (1986). Cross-cultural orientation: New conceptualizations and applications. Lanham, MD: University Press of America. Quoted in: Bhawuk, D., Brislin, R. (2000). CROSS-CULTURAL TRAINING A REVIEW. Delhi Business Review, Vol. 1, No. 1, Jan.2000 Rubin, I. (1967). The reduction of prejudice through laboratory training. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 3, 29-50. Richards, D. (1996). Strangers in a strange land: Expatriate paranoia and the dynamics of exclusion. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 7(2), 553–571. Roysircar, G., Gard, G., Hubbell, R., Ortega, M. (2005) Development of counseling trainees multicultural awareness through mentoring English as a second language students. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 33, 17-36. Saks, A., and Belcourt, M. (2006). An investigation of training activities and transfer of training in organizations, Human Resource Management, 45, 629–48. Scullion, H., Collings, D. (2006) Global staffing [ Internet], Abingdon, Routledge. Available from: http://books.google.co.uk/books?hl=enlr=id=w3LnFQhk_FICoi=fndpg=PA117dq=cross+cultural+trainingots=PO7QGtYn7hsig=KNU3g8vlJXgTMP7AnqRFuIMOzAA#v=onepageq=cross%20cultural%20trainingf=false [Accessed 13 October 2013]. Selmer, J. (2006) Munificence of Parent Corporate Contexts and Expatriate Cross-Cultural Training in China. Research Report. Denmark, Asia Pacific Business Review. Shen, J., and R. Darby. 2006. Training and management development in Chinese multinational enterprises. Employee Relations 28, no. 4: 342–58. Tarique, I., Caligiuri, P. (2009) The role of cross-cultural absorptive capacity in the effectiveness of in-country cross-cultural training. International Journal of Training and Development, 13:3, 148-164.

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

Classifying Rocks Essay -- Geology Geological Rock Essays Papers

Classifying Rocks   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Rocks are classified to make it easier on people to identify them in the future. This can be done by a numerous amount of ways. Each rock type has their own specific ways, but there are two distinct characteristics that apply to all. These are texture and composition. These two, along with many others helps to classify igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Igneous rocks are classified first by texture. This is broken down mainly into grain size. First there are intrusive, or plutonic igneous rocks. These types of rocks cool within the crust and forms large, visible crystals. The opposite would be extrusive, or volcanic rocks. These cool at the surface rapidly, forming small grains. A combination of the two would be porphyritic, large grains in an aphanitic, or extrusive matrix. Secondly, composition is used to classify igneous rocks. There are four types, ultramafic, mafic, intermediate, and felsic. Ultramafic rocks are very dark and contain and extreme amount of iron and magnesium. Mafic rocks are also dark in color; they too contain high iron and magnesium amounts. An example would be olivine, or pyroxene. Intermediate igneous rocks are made from silica and plagioclase. They tend to be grays and browns in color. Finally, felsic socks are light in color and contains high amounts of silica. Quartz and potassium feld spar are examples of felsic igneous rocks. Other types of rocks are classified similarly.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Sedimentary rocks form...

Monday, January 13, 2020

Substance misusers

Identify and act upon immediate risk of danger to substance misuse's 1. 1 – Describe the range of different substances subject to misuse and their effects There Is a whole range of different substances and they all create different effects. Substances fit Into three different categories, with more than one category fitting some substances. The three categories are: Stimulants, Depressants and Hallucinogens. I will proceed to list the main substances, their effects, how they are taken and the category they fit into: Alkyl Nitrates (poppers, amyl nitrate, butyl nitrate, gibbously nitrate): Category:Hallucinogens Effect: Brief but intense head rush, flushed face and neck, effects fade after 2-5- minutes Form and how taken: Vapor which is breathed in through the mouth or nose or from a small bottle or tube. Amphetamines (speed, waltz, poet, belly, sulfate, crystal meet): Category: Stimulants Effect : Excitement, the mind races and users feel confident and energetic, suppresses app etite, smoking crystal meet will produce a more intense rush Form and how taken: Grey or white powder that is snorted, swallowed, smoked, injected or dissolved in a drink.Base is a strong version of the powder form and is white or yellowish in color and is usually swallowed or injected. Tablets which are swallowed. Crystal meet is crystalline and is smoked or injected. Anabolic Steroids (rods): Category: Users say the drugs make them feel more aggressive and able to train harder, helps build up muscle with exercise, helps users recover from strenuous exercise Form and how taken: Tablets that are swallowed or liquids that are injected BGP – Phenylalanine (BIZ, pep, pep love, pep twisted, pep stones, the good stuff, exodus, frenzy): Category:Causes effects similar to amphetamine but not as strong. When combined with other types of prissiness the effects seem to be compounded which gives a greater sense of euphoria – (effects can differ from pill to pill due to the nature of the chemical make-up) Form and how taken: Pills – many shapes, forms and colors – Often have Imprints such as fly, crown, heart and can often be sold as ecstasy Cannabis (Marijuana, weed, puff, skunk, blow, phonic, draw. Soapbox): Category: Users feel relaxed and talkative. May cause hilarity. Usually brings on cravings for food.Strong skunk can cause hallucinations. Form and how taken: A solid dark lump known as resin/hash or leaves, buds, stalks and seeds, or a sticky dark oil. Can be rolled either with or without tobacco in a Joint or smoked in a pipe, or eaten in a cake or biscuits. Cocaine and Crack (Cocaine, Charlie, coke, crack, wash, rock, white): Category: Sense of well-being alertness and confidence. For cocaine the effect can last for around 30 minutes, users are often left wishing for more. Crack has the same effects as cocaine but is much more intense and a much shorter high with a ore intense craving for more.Form and how taken: Cocaine – white powder that is snorted up the nose, dabbed on gums, swallowed and sometimes dissolved and injected. Crack – small raisin sized crystals which are smoked in a pipe Heroin (smack, gear, brown, H): Depressants Strong feeling of warmth, contentment and well-being (happy bubble) Form and how taken: Usually brown, sometimes white powder. Either smoked on foil or prepared for injection and injected. Ecstasy (E, doves, pills, burgers, disco biscuit, maturities, MADAM): Category: Users feel alert and in tune with their surroundings.Sound, color and emotions seem more intense. Users may dance for extended periods. Effects may last for 3 to 6 hours. Form and how used: Tablets of different shapes, size and color – often with some kind of logo on. Pure MADAM (the main ingredient in ecstasy pills) is a brown colored crystal and is crushed and snorted. Gases, glues and aerosols (lighter gas, aerosols containing products such as hairspray, deodorants and air fresheners, tins or tubes of glue, some paints, thinners and correcting fluids): Category:Hallucinogens Similar to being very drunk, also thick headed, dizzy, giggly, dreamy, and hallucinations Form and how used: Sniffed or breathed into the lungs from a cloth or sleeve. Gas products are sometimes squirted directly into the back of the throat. Alcohol: Disinherited, euphoria, loss of coordination and unconsciousness Form and how used:Drunk as a liquid Astatine (K, special K, vitamin K): in severe cases Form and how used: Legally produced as a liquid, illegally produced as a pill or grainy white powder – usually snorted or prepared for injection ND injected.Painlessness's (Valid, digamma, tempera, neutralize, planetarium, yellows, blues, smarmiest, bonzes, reopen, trains, Jellies, valise, mommies, roofers, downers): Long acting bonzes such as valid/digamma are commonly used for stress and anxiety management. Short acting ones such as tempera are often used for help with sleep. Used in detoxification w here there is risk of fitting. All cause a calm relaxed feeling or bring on sleep. Form and how used: Either swallowed as a pill, injected or used in a suppositoryOpiates (Methadone, codeine, Dehydrogenate (DIF 18), Diction, Petitioned, Opium, Morphine, Playful, Subtext – partial opiate): Category: Can be divided into long acting and short acting. SHort acting can depending on dose, give feelings of contentment and relief of distress that is also offered by heroin. Longer acting opiates such as methadone cause less euphoria and are mainly used to relieve symptoms of withdrawal. Form and how used: Pills – swallowed, linctuses – swallowed, enunciable preparations. GHB (GHB, Liquid Ecstasy, gammahydroxybutyrate, RE, rib, blue Juice, roofless, liquid E):Small amounts may cause happiness and distribution. Increasing amounts brings out depressant effects. Sometimes used for bodybuilding. Induces sleep and is often associated with rape. Form and how used: Odorless slig htly salty liquid. Concentration is variable so may be difficult to measure dosage – often mixed with a drink LSI (Acid, trip, tab, blotter, stars): Time distortion, perceptual changes, visual colors and patterns Form and how used: Usually a small tab of paper with a colorful pattern on – usually eaten or wiped around gums

Sunday, January 5, 2020

Theories Of The Pursuit Of Knowledge - 1581 Words

This quote claims that the viewpoint of a learner is not only present but necessary in the methodology of the pursuit of knowledge in all scenarios. While I disagree with the absolute, I do agree with the statement in select contexts. However, in objective human sciences, the subjectivity of a knower’s perspective and bias are not only nonessential, but may be dangerous to the initiation, methodology, and resulting outcomes of inquiry. Meanwhile, in the study of ethics, perspective is theorized to be totally essential to the pursuit of knowledge by some and totally nonessential by others. Even in the pursuit of knowledge in a specific subjective area, it is possible to limit the subjectivity of one’s perspective by attempting to disregard the values of one’s context. Whether or not a knower s perspective is essential to the inquiry of knowledge depends upon the objectives and aspirations of the thinker and the individual circumstances of the topic within the hum an sciences or ethics. While one’s own perspective may help the knower to understand the principle of human sciences, the human sciences are generally objective as they are a science. The knower’s perspective is not as important in the complexities and advanced end of the department, and in many cases can misconstrue or invalidate the findings by wrongly altering the process. To understand why perspective is considered damaging in the field of human sciences, one can research the history of the perception ofShow MoreRelatedHuman Science And Natural Science1276 Words   |  6 PagesDisagreement may aid the pursuit of knowledge in the natural and human sciences because disagreement leads to new discoveries. Disagreement is about gathering reliable knowledge as well as using this newfound knowledge, and occurs when a group fails to reach a consensus over the logic of an argument. Knowledge is composed of facts, information, and skills acquired by a person through experience or education. 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The knowers all pursue the answer to their questions when researching or learning the knowledge, which results in the similar way of thinking among the similar communities. Few can detach themselves from the contemporary situation since the cultural background, various eras, and diverse ways of knowing all help to shape the pursuit of knowledge. While to a greatRead MoreEssay on Counseling Ethics1249 Words   |  5 Pagesof western philosophy to concern oneself with second order questions about ethics; specifically the semantics, epistemology and ontology of ethics. NORMATIVE ETHICS Normative ethics often called moral theory was the study of what behaviors or motifs make actions right or wrong. The theories served as an umbrella principle that could be used to settle tough moral issues. The turn of the 20th century, saw moral theorists becoming more complex. 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Saturday, December 28, 2019

2008 Us Economic Recession - 1709 Words

INTRODUCTIONS The Global Financial Crisis of 2008 is considered by many economists to be the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s. It resulted in the threat of total collapse of large financial institutions, the bailout of small and big banks by national governments, and downturns in stock markets around the world. In United States, the housing market also suffered, resulting in evictions, foreclosures and prolonged unemployment. The crisis played a significant role in the failure of key businesses, declines in consumer confidence, declines in consumer wealth estimated in trillions of US dollars, and a downturn in economic activity leading to the 2008–2012 global recession and contributing to the European†¦show more content†¦By September 2008, average U.S. housing prices had declined by over 20% from their mid-2006 peak. As prices declined, borrowers with adjustable-rate mortgages could not refinance to avoid the higher payments associated with rising int erest rates and began to default. During 2007, lenders began foreclosure proceedings on nearly 1.3 million properties, a 79% increase over 2006. This increased to 2.3 million in 2008, an 81% increase vs. 2007. By August 2008, 9.2% of all U.S. mortgages outstanding were either delinquent or in foreclosure. By September 2009, this had risen to 14.4% Easy credit conditions Lower interest rates encouraged borrowing. From 2000 to 2003, the Federal Reserve lowered the federal funds rate target from 6.5% to 1.0%.[68] This was done to soften the effects of the collapse of the dot-com bubble and the September 2001 terrorist attacks. The Fed then raised the Fed funds rate significantly between July 2004 and July 2006. This contributed to an increase in 1-year and 5-year adjustable-rate mortgage (ARM) rates, making ARM interest rate resets more expensive for homeowners. This may have also contributed to the deflating of the housing bubble, as asset prices generally move inversely to interest rates, and it became riskier to speculate in housing. Weak andShow MoreRelatedThe Recession Since World War II Essay1228 Words   |  5 PagesThe Great Recession period was between the end of 2007 and the middle of 2009, which makes it the lengthiest recession since World War II. The gross domestic product (GDP) fell 4.3% from its peak in the fourth quarter of 2007 to its trough in the second quarter of 2009, the largest decline in the post-war period. The rate for unemployment was 5 % at the end of 2007 and increased to 9.5% in the middle of 2009 and reached 10 % in October 2009. The credit crunch had many effects on the economy. OneRead MoreThe Events Of The Summer Olympics And Michael Phelps Winning 8 Gold Medals1698 Words   |  7 PagesFrom the year 2008 many of us still remember the important events of the Summer Olympics and Michael Phelps winning 8 gold medals and being the first person to ever do this in history. We also remember the election of the 43rd president of the United States Barack Obama who was the first black president to be elected before going on and being elected for a second term. 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Thursday, December 19, 2019

Baptism During The Early Church And Medieval Eras Essay

Baptism in the Early Church and Medieval Eras All Christians know about the Great Commission, â€Å"Go therefore and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, teaching them to observe all that I have commanded you. And behold, I am with you always, to the end of the age† (Matthew 28:19-20, English Standard Version). In that command, Jesus tells us to baptize in the name of the Trinity. What does the word â€Å"baptism† mean? Baptimsa and sometimes baptismos, the Greek word origin of â€Å"baptism†, can translate to â€Å"immersion† or â€Å"bathing† without any religious implications (McGowan, 2014). Nearly every Christian church practices baptism with a religious implication; however, they do not agree on God’s activity in, the qualifications for admitting a person to, and methods of administering baptism. For instance, many churches do not baptize people until they become adults and make a profession of faith, while others encourage baptizing an infant soon after they are born. The practices and philosophy for baptism changed throughout its use in the New Testament, the Early Church, and the Medieval era. New Testament Views of Baptism Sproul articulates, â€Å"the baptism of John and the New Testament rite that we celebrate in the Christian community are not identical (2014). The type of baptism John did was introduced in the Old Testament and directed to the Jewish nation. Between the Old Testament and the New Testament,Show MoreRelatedSt. John the Baptist in Paintings2642 Words   |  11 Pagestime of Jesus’ ministry. Many know John as a non-divine apocalyptic preacher who claimed baptism would help one get into heaven, and it would be disadvantageous to ignore baptism. John is relevant to understanding historical Jesus not only because he baptized Jesus but because of their conflicting similarities. John and Jesus were both apocalyptic preachers, in the Essene Jewish sub-group, and popular during antiquity. Many scholars actually believe John was more popular in antiquity. Because ofRead MoreMedieval Vs. Medieval Era1506 Words   |  7 PagesThe Medieval, or Middle, Ages in Europe have often been called the Dark Ages, since they seem to have been lacking in many ways. However, the Church was always shining the light of the Gospel in even the darkest of places. â€Å"In the very bosom of this doomed society, a power remained which was capable of giving meaning to the drama, of bringing order out of disorder, of integrating the Barbarians into civilization and of using their youthful energies to restore the world to vigor and health. ThisRead MoreWitchcraft And Superstition In Medieval Europe1654 Words   |  7 PagesWitchcraft and superstition in Medieval Europe The concept of witchcraft and superstition stretches over a long period of time. The idea became familiar around 560 B.C when the two old testaments denounced witches and the belief in them. The idea is said to have originated in Europe, rapidly spreading around the world. Medieval Europe was an era that solely believed in magic, witches and the supernatural. In the Middle Ages witchcraft was viewed as a heinous crime that was punishable by deathRead MoreAnti Semitism By Jacob Von Konigshofen1196 Words   |  5 Pageswritten by Jacob von Konigshofen was an example of anti-Semitism during the medieval Europe. In the document, Konigshofen outlines the catastrophes in Strasbourg when the Jews admitted to committing the heinous act of poisoning the water wells which they attributed to causing the Black Death. To understand the document at hand, one must understand the circumstances that motivated the cremation of the Jewish people in Strasbourg. In the early fourteenth century, Europe faced a ravaging and crippling economicRead MoreReligion, Superstition Witchcraft in Early Modern Europe1539 Words   |  7 Pages|HIST208-13B (HAM) | |Religion, Superstition Witchcraft in Early Modern Europe | Early Medieval Period: Mid-5th – mid 9thC (c.450-850CE) Augustine died in 430 as the Vandals were besieging his city of Hippo. Some 20 years before, Rome had fallen. In the West the ancient empire was a thing of the past; inRead MoreChristianity And The Rise Of Christianity1395 Words   |  6 Pagesof Judaism during the 1st century in ancient Israel and spread to the Americas and the rest of the world through colonization and Christian missionaries. Christianity has played a conspicuous role in the shaping of Western civilization. The impact and the rapid spread of this religion eventually came to dominate the Western world. Christianity Christianity is the monotheistic religion based upon the life, oral teachings and miracles of Jesus of Nazareth. Jesus lived in Palestine during the firstRead More Humanities in the Early, High And Late Middle Ages Essay2132 Words   |  9 Pageshumanities and the effects and developments that the humanities of the Early, High and Late Middle ages had on society. We have made some very interesting findings and come up with some intriguing conclusions. The findings are most definitely in condensed form for the simplicity of our assignment, although if given an unbridled word count, surely we would demonstrate volumes of text form such interesting periods. The Early Middle Ages Before we can talk about humanities, we must first defineRead MoreEssay about Humanities in the Early, High and Late Middle Ages2248 Words   |  9 Pageshumanities and the effects and developments that the humanities of the Early, High and Late Middle ages had on society. We have made some very interesting findings and come up with some intriguing conclusions. The findings are most definitely in condensed form for the simplicity of our assignment, although if given an unbridled word count, surely we would demonstrate volumes of text form such interesting periods. The Early Middle Ages Before we can talk about humanities, we must first defineRead More The Rise of Christianity and Christian Art Essay2039 Words   |  9 Pagespopulations of the Roman Empire, by the 4th century A.D the Christian religion had a huge impact to the Greeks and also the early Byzantine Empire. But by this time Christian communities had been established in all the important cities in the Roman Empire. In 313 the next emperor Constantine legalized Christianity throughout the empire. He also granted many privileges to the church, by this time over 1/10 of the population of Rome were Christian and the emperors who succeeded Constantine except for oneRead MoreNotes on Medieval Europe and Japan Essay2169 Words   |  9 Pages02.01 Travel Journal 1. How did manorialism develop in Medieval Europe? †¢ Some people moved to countryside and focused on agriculture. †¢ Small, independent economies arose, centered on large agricultural manors. †¢ system controlled by powerful warrior landlords, built small armies to protect manor. †¢ Landlords also leased out land in exchange for loyalty. 2. How did the idea of feudalism emerge as an historical construct? †¢ 3. What role